خوانش ماده گرايي فرهنگي داستان كوتاه هاي منتخب راديارد كيپلينگ بر مبناي تئوري هاي ريموند ويليامز
A Cultural Materialistic Reading of Rudyard Kipling's selected short stories under the Light of Raymond Williams's Theories
This study seeks to analyze the selected short stories of Rudyard Kipling set in British India. To achieve that goal, the researcher has chosen the theory of Cultural Materialism, specifically the concepts, ideas and notions of Raymond Williams as one of the most significant theorists of the approach. The study makes use of the questions of culture as well as materialism to shed more light on the way Kipling’s short stories serve as tools to reinforce and strengthen imperialism. The main theory of Raymond Williams deals with the relationship that exists between culture, society, politics and especially literature and arts. What Williams considers as the main task of the critic is revealing the ways writers, and literature in general, seek to preserve and defend the status quo through their writings. For Williams, literature has the same function as those of all other cultural products which are defending the dominant discourses and forces that circulate in the society. Rudyard Kipling is a writer whose writings are believed to have undercurrent themes of imperialism, something George Orwell has pointed out and talked about. The researcher believes taking a cultural materialist approach and analysis will be inevitably helpful to make the situation a lot clearer. The researcher here aims at taking the role of a cultural critic and, therefore, investigates whether Rudyard Kipling makes cultural products which underscore and reinforce imperialism and if so, explores the ways he is able to do such a task.
Keywords: Cultural Materialism, Cultural Imperialism, Structure, Structuralism, Raymond Williams