اجراي نظريه هاي تكثرگرايي و قراردادهاي ژان فرنسوا ليوتار بر جود گمنام، تس، به دور از اجتماع شوريده، شهردار كستربريج تامس هاردي
Application of Jean Francois Lyotard’s Theories of Multiplicity and Grand-narratives to Thomas Hardy’s Tess of the D’Urbervilles, Jude the Obscure, The Mayor of Casterbridge and Far From the Madding Crowd "
The researcher analyzes the effects, influences and ultimate changes due to multiplicity and socially constructed conventions with applying Jean Francois Lyotard’s theories of multiplicity, grand-narrative versus small narratives in the mid and late Victorian era by employing Thomas Hardy’s Jude the Obscure, Tess of the d’Urbervilles, Far from the Madding Crowd and The Mayor of Casterbridge as a template to look back at the social construction and meta-narrative of that era. The researcher by utilizing the four previously mentioned novels, establishes how individuals in the Victorian era pursued their lives in light of differences in ideologies and socially constructed grand-narratives and how these differences were resolved, assimilated or discarded. The major question that arises is, were individuals including Hardy’s characters free to express themselves socially and individually? What were the sacrifices that had to be made by those who opted to go against the meta-narratives of their society? How did ideologies interact and lead to the final changes that we experience currently? In answer to these, in line with Lyotard’s theories, this research presents the argument that humanity is social but different, and these differences should not be a source of conflict but rather acceptance and compromises; that is, the rejection of totalizing grand-narratives that are considered unfit for the survival of the society as a whole and incorporation of practices that are considered harmless to the society. By employing Lyotard’s concept of multiplicity as a guideline for reading Thomas Hardy’s selected novels, it could be said that although according to Lyotard, multiplicity and revolting against meta-narratives is a post-modern condition, even in the nineteenth century rural life as portrayed by Hardy, some individuals rebelled against grand-narratives. This thesis attempts to argue that acceptance and tolerance of different ideas, judgments, justices and religious perceptions of individuals even those that reject meta-narratives, make limiting absolute grand-narratives lose their significances because each person is entitled to think, judge, behave differently and not merely in line with restricting totalizing meta-narratives and conventions.