خوانش ماده گرايي فرهنگي بر داستان كوتاه هاي منتخب چارلز ديكنز
A Cultural Materialistic Reading of Selected Short Stories by Charles Dickens
Ghost stories have been popular in English literature and there have been numerous writers who have written in that genre. Although many writers have used the genre in order to entertain their reader, there are many others who have used the genre to express their ideas, ideologies and also philosophical outlooks, among whom Charles Dickens is one of the brightest in the genre. This thesis seeks to investigate the short stories of Charles Dickens written after 1850s from a totally new point of view. To that end, the theory of Cultural Materialism, especially Raymond Williams, will be used which focuses on the issue of culture, on the one hand, and materialism, on the other, to illustrate the rationale behind Dickens’ trying his hand at writing, firstly, short stories and, secondly, supernatural and fantastic pieces of literary works. Raymond Williams, as the main critical thinker of this study, depicts the dual relationship of culture, especially literature with society and politics as a whole. For Williams, the role of the critic is to disclose the attempts of literature to maintain the status quo of ideology and social order. Literature for Williams is not different from other texts and does not relate to a higher truth than that of the society and the culture and that is why he guides the critics to view literature as a product. These ideas and theories are adopted by the researcher to the short stories of Charles Dickens which contain the themes of ghost and supernatural elements. The points that this research aims at investigating include Dickens’ decision to write supernatural and fantastic short stories at a time when realism was the dominant mode of writing. Therefore, the researcher will try to establish a kind of relationship between literature, society, culture, politics, economics and history in the selected texts that will help her answer the main question of this thesis by adopting the theory of Raymond Williams.
Cultural Materialism, Realism,Victorian Age, Industrial Revolution, Ghost Story