منازعات گفتماني جهت پايه گذاري قدرت و هويت در رمان هاي منتخب آندره برينك و نادين گورديمر
Discursive Struggles over Construction of Power and Identity in the Selected Novels of André Brink and Nadine Gordimer
Distinctive utilization of a specific language in each of the political, social, religious, and cultural spheres fabricates circumstances in which power is developed and wielded by the individuals who hold or aspire to hold power. It is through vigorous and on-going discursive practices that the dominant and subordinate discourses strive to empower their ideologies. Throughout these grapples the sedimented discourses in the society manage to consolidate their major concepts and simultaneously foreground themselves and excludes other adversary discourses, yet the totality is not eternally retained. Hence the interrelationship among different substantial concepts including tradition, culture, religion, race, and class around the vanguard discourses would determine the fortification of the structured unity and hegemony. In this respect, any alterations in the previously settled significations in a certain terrain result in upheavals in identity and jeopardize the designated power unless the major concepts are in abiding re-articulations. Pertaining to Ernesto Laclau and Chantal Mouffe’s theories in discourse analysis which have been mostly deployed in actual social and political domains, this study investigates some fictional texts to scrutinize the challenges among the major discourses and sub-discourses to uncover the process through which a character’s discourse acquires superiority. Analyses of André Brink’s Devil’s Valley (1998) and Philida (2012), and Nadine Gordimer’s July’s People (1981) and The Pickup (2001) based on a three-step-model including textual, intertextual, and contextual readings would inaugurate an ordered thoroughgoing exploration of discursive practices in English literary texts. The researcher explores how the subservient discourses of Afrikaner woman and the black South African either foreground themselves or are sustained in the hegemony of the major dominant discourses. Correspondingly the present study first reveals that the adoption of discursive practices by the characters in dealing with gender and racial inequalities induced out of colonization, intense patriarchy, reversed-apartheid, and post-apartheid would have consequential identity crisis and uncertainty or identity recuperation with a prospect of establishing a new self which might be in opposition with the original one. In the similar circumstances pristine forms of concepts such as freedom and oppression are re-articulated by either the main characters or the social dominant discourses in dealing with evolving dislocations in the South African context. Second, the present discourse-semiotic analysis attests that there are discursive intertextual relations between Brink and Gordimer’s novels. Third, the study indicates that the presence of dichotomies in the characters’ identity in a smaller scale is due to the emergence of the conflicts between three noticeable oppositional major discourses containing black and white; tradition and modernity; and indigenous and foreign. Ultimately, the research renders that in recounting racial and gender discriminations, the Afrikaner novelists have devised another discourse as a social imaginary which does not necessarily prompt reconciliation and equality, since marginalization of the subservient discourses perpetuates.